This paper reviews the literature concerning safety management interventions, that have been effective in reducing injury outcomes in occupational health and safety (OHS) and road safety, and assesses their applicability to reducing crash and injury outcomes in heavy vehicle transport. There was little robust empirical research in the heavy vehicle transport sector providing evidence of effective safety management characteristics that reduced crashes and injuries. The research on safety management practices, safety culture and injury risk assessment in other areas of transport and OHS purported to directly influence crash and/or injury outcomes was also assessed as well as those that influenced some measure of safety improvement. The operational and management characteristics that were associated with reduced crash and injury risk included: safety training, management commitment, scheduling or journey planning, size of organisation or freight type, worker participation, incentives and safety or return to work policies. Other characteristics that might be associated with lower incident and injury rates were risk analysis/corrective actions, prior safety violations, crashes or incidents, vehicle conditions or physical work environment, vehicle technologies, recruitment and retention, pay and remuneration systems, communications/support, safety or quality management accreditation, financial performance, and worker characteristics and attitudes. The review also highlighted gaps in the literature requiring further research. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.